Edvaldo Luiz Ramalli Jr. Supervised all phases, conception, design, intellectual and scientific content of the study, critical revision.
PURPOSE: This study describes in Brazil and in the global biomedical community the time course of the development of animal research welfare guidelines. Medline database was evaluated to identify the number of publications in the period between and that used research animals and were in compliance with established ethics guidelines.
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Most of the applications came from Department of Physiology and the most frequently requested species was the rat. In , national research funding agencies started to request prior approval from institutional review ethics committees prior to application review and this requirement became federal law in Brazil in Moreover, animal welfare concern in the scientific community preceded the introduction of journal guidelines for this purpose.
Furthermore, in Brazil it was anticipated that laws were needed to protect animal research welfare from being not upheld.
Terrorism in the name of animal rights - Los Angeles Times
Key words: Ethics. Animal Experimentation. Base de Dados. For many centuries extending back to a time nearly twelve thousand years that predates written records when agriculture and animal domestication started, animals have been used for research by humans from different cultures. Their usage provided answers to questions pertaining to health and welfare. This historical perspective demonstrates how effective and essential it has been to use animals as test subjects to provide in some cases life-saving answers to numerous biomedical questions.
Despite these important advances, extremist organizations have come into existence that are strongly opposed to the continued use of animals for biomedical research in the laboratory. They have launched a "Research Animal War" whose objective is to prohibit all types of animal research.
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In the nineteenth century in the United Kingdom, emerging public concern about the ethical use of animals resulted in the establishment of legal guidelines that defined procedures to be implemented protecting them from being used in an abusive manner. Such concern about the protection of animal welfare rights became important on an international scale as indicated by the passage in in the USA of the Animal Welfare Act 3. Indeed, new animal welfare research guidelines are being continuously codified by journals, institutions and research funding agencies requiring researcher compliance before initiating experimental studies.
However, the chronology and impact of developing methodological requirements on research endeavors have not been addressed before now Brazil is among the twenty leading countries in the world whose number of biomedical publications is having a positive impact in different disciplines. The Faculty of Medicine at Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo University FMRP-USP is a major biomedical research center in Brazil that provides high quality contributions to biomedical research and has received attention for its potential growth due to favorable economic support This committee was created six years ahead of the establishment of a Brazilian Animal Welfare Research legal code.
Recommendations on how to be in compliance with international guidelines were already published in Brazilian biomedical journals for more than a decade. It repealed a previous one and the first regulating this matter, signed by the Brazilian president in May 08, Medline is a public database that indexes journal articles pertaining to biomedical research and allows free electronic access to more than 19 million citations citations from to the present.
The core clinical journals, formerly called the Abridged Index Medicus compiles the contents of biomedical journals indexed in PubMed, which was established by the National Library of Medicine in , and can be used as search filter.
Animal Research Aids in War Against Ebola
This study documents the chronology of the guideline improvements that are being made to be in compliance with animal research ethical standards at a leading Brazilian research institution who is a member of the global biomedical research community. The following data was obtained: number of projects submitted, research area of applicant, animal species requested, length of journal review time needed for rendering a final decision on manuscript acceptability, and the rate of journal rejection. The search extended from to in ten year intervals ranging from: a ; b to ; c to ; d to The first occurrences retrieved, using the following limits: core clinical journals, specific date range extending from January 1 st to December 31, with English Abstracts, organized in chronological order from the earliest to the oldest were analyzed.
The number of studies with animals and the species indicated were recorded. The guidelines for authors in the past 40 years published in those journals were searched to identify the year when a a recommendation of adherence to the principles of ethics was made; and b the pre-approval by the ethics committees of educational institutions was made, as a prerequisite for submissions to these journals. It is a primer on the extremists and organizations involved and their tactics--lobbying in schools, novel legal manoeuvres, threatening families, posting razor blades, vandalism, arson and bombing.
If you experiment with animals, this book should persuade you to open your post with a letter-opener instead of your finger. There are people out there who really hate you. Authors Michael Conn, associate director of the Oregon National Primate Research Center, and James Parker, the centre's former press officer, argue that extremists are waging a war on animal research.
get link Talk of war can motivate a nation, but it does not always generate good policy. Conn and Parker say they must use military rhetoric to attract the attention of the public to these attacks and their effect on human and animal well-being.
To deliver their wake-up call, the authors mirror the strident language of animal-rights organizations, such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals PETA. I have some sympathy for the authors' approach. The enormous membership of such organizations suggests that the best way to get a message across in this dumbed-down world is to skip the subtleties, assert that grey is black, and hurl sound bites, anecdotes and context-free quotes at the public.
Equally, they explain the process of protecting animals in research and they put to rest some of the tired myths of laboratory animals myths that animal extremists need to perpetuate in order to validate their own dire actions. We hope you will read, learn from, and enjoy The Animal Research War. It is extremely important that an informed public know what is really going on and how it impacts on the future of healthcare and medical advances. We hope you will also pass it along and help spread truth.
The actions of this tiny minority to deny the ongoing importance of animal research for progress in human and animal health are a disservice to us all. Runkle, Science.
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